The council is composed of 48 councillors elected every four years. Councillors are democratically accountable to residents of their ward. The overriding duty of councillors is to the whole community, but they have a special duty to their constituents, including those who did not vote for them. Councillors have to agree to follow a code of conduct to ensure high standards in the way they undertake their duties. The Standards and Audit Committee trains and advises councillors on the code of conduct.
Members of council usually belong to a political party. Currently, Chesterfield Borough Council is made up of 34 Labour Party Members, 12 Liberal Democrats, 1 UKIP member and 1 independent member.